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In spite of such transforma- large mountains Tien Shan in the south, Altai and tions, the size of the country and the low human Alatul in the east or around human settlements and density has allowed the persistence of large steppe river valleys. By the 1. Agricultural landscapes AGRI. There land in steppes had been abandoned. Furthermore, as in are also numerous herds including sheep, horses other Inner Asia countries, livestock had been priva- and cows.

In this paper we examine how land-use transforma- 2. In addition, raptors can 3. Saline steppe SAL. This habitat includes large be detected with relative ease compared to more elusive saline steppe and marshes in the vicinity of Bal- organisms.

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Thus, indices of raptor abundance have been jash and Alakol Lakes. Vegetation is dominated widely used to assess the impact of human-induced by various saline shrubs Sarcocornia spp. Scir- transformations within a variety of habitats, ecosystems pus spp. Artrocnemum spp and reedbeds Phrag- and biomes Burnham et al. These indices allow us Eleagnus hortensis. This includes large areas that can be related to a patchy or homogeneous dis- of natural dry steppes with little or no human tribution of resources. Trees are lacking and the vegetation is terns can be made through spatial autocorrelation dominated by grasses and forbs Artemisia spp.

There are also sparse rocky still poorly known among vertebrate ecologists see outcrops. Legendre and Fortin, Finally, because of low data available on human set- tlements e.

For each habitat category we per- formed successive tests comparing similarity between pairs of sites separated by increasing distances, from 1 km lowest distance class to half the total length of the road census, with that obtained from pairs of sites ran- domly selected. Study area. Fuller and Mosher, senting an opposite trend. The determined at two levels.

In this and Legendre, In the case of steppe eagles Aquila nipalensis , we actual distributions whith those obtained by random. Gra- Citellus spp. Due to limitations in the number of data that could be entered in the program Legendre and Vaudor, 2. For the rest Each raptor species was assigned to one of the fol- of the transects the sampling unit was 1 km.


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The highest species richness 10 species was predators rock or tree-nesting species. Common and lesser kes- tests. Each km interval made up the bulk of raptors in saline steppe. Serial autocorrelation between pairs of sampling units separated by distances ranging from 1 adjacent units to half the length of the transects, for the total abundance of raptors in eastern Kazakhstan.


Table 1 cies in dry steppes. As regards Aquila nipalensis — 3. The frequencies of Falco subbuteo 1. Finally, immature steppe eagles made Cattle herds They were more Citellus spp. Tree 9. P and 6 km, but no repeated spatial pattern was detected. Repeatable spatial patterns were only found in grass- Aquila nipalensis Constant 6. Grass 3. It can be argued that the results of the surveys can be biased by several factors.

For exam- Circus macrourus Constant 5. However, we never saw a bird of prey feeding on road- Falco naumanni killed corpses, although some species like the black kite Constant 3.

Population Ecology of Raptors

On the other hand, analyses detected a explained In general, patchy distribu- seems uncertain. On the other hand, smaller species and agricultural areas. Tourism activities linked to nature observation, tems, nesting where necessary on buildings and in cereal and other low intensity uses such as regulated hunting, crops, respectively. Both species remain as breeders in could help to maintain populations of large vertebrates pseudo-steppe habitats of Western Europe where more in such areas.

Further research on habitat-species rela- sensitive raptor species such as pallid harrier or steppe tionships in Asian steppe habitats may also provide eagle are absent Tucker and Heath, ; A. Ladyguin new insights for management practices in pseudo- and V. Five species were never detected in few years. Alternatively, agri- and M.

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Tella for comments on the manuscript. Table 1 and gerbils Rhombomybs spp. Analytical Software, St Paul. Biological and conservation aspects of bird mor- roads, especially for large-sized species Bevanger, ; tality caused by electricity power lines: a review. Biological Con- servation 86, 67— Ferrer and Janns, Mass death of raptors on elec- Bignal, E.

Low-intensity farming systems tric lines around the Zaysan Depression has been in the conservation of the countryside. Journal of Applied Ecology reported Starikov, and we found two young 33, — Raptors in Human Landscapes. Academic Press, London. Blanco, G.

Journal of Applied Ecology sized raptors. In the vicinity of villages large predators 35, — Izmeneniya fauni i chislennosti khishchnykh ptits corsac may be absent see Bird et al. Moreover, Kustanaiskoi oblasti Severnyi Kazakhstan. Selevinia —99, 99— Burnham, W.

Progress Report the increase in small rodents mice and voles is linked III. The Peregrine Fund, 4. Dobson, A. Introduction to Statistical Modelling. Chapman and Hall, London. Roadside damaged steppe raptors in the past, but the future of raptor surveys in the Argentinean Patagonia. Journal of Raptor raptor communities and of vertebrates in Kazakhstan Research 27, — Journal of Applied Ecology 37, — Journal of Applied Ecology 30, Pain, D.

Farming and Birds in Europe. Ellis, D. Raptor road surveys in Parr, S. Journal of Raptor Research 24, 98— Heredia, B. Sustaining the steppes; a geo- in south-east Kazakhstan, April—May Sandgrouse 22, 36— Raptors as graphical Review 89, — Conservation Biology 12, — Raptor distribution in rela- 1— Ferrer, M. Go to Conservation Land Management. Series: Poyser Monographs Volume: Click to have a closer look.

Ecological Population Counting

Select version. About this book Customer reviews Biography Related titles. Images Additional images. About this book Concerned with all aspects of population regulation in diurnal birds of prey. Customer Reviews Review this book. Current promotions. Other titles in Poyser Monographs.